Departmental Objectives

  • acquire knowledge of the basic principles of pharmacology for rational, effective and safe use of therapeutic agents in health care.
  • demonstrate the ability to relate the actions of drugs to their uses and untoward effects, for the purpose of tackling therapeutic problems; in particular, making appropriate choice of drugs
  • acquire knowledge of the limitations of different drug preparations, which enable the prescriber to choose the appropriate drugs
  • acquire knowledge of the variability of drug responses in individuals, the existence of drug interactions which may modify usual pharmacological effects, and the hazards of improper use of drugs
  • apply pharmacokinetic principles to calculate plasma drug concentrations achieved, and make dosage adjustments to achieve optimal clinical effects
  • to interpret the results of simple pharmacological experiments
  • acknowledge the essential drugs concept
  • get a habit of rational prescribing practice in providing health care in developing countries
  • acknowledge pharmacology as a subject which plays an integral part of solving health problems

 Duration of the course: one year


Teaching and learning methods

  •                      Lectures on pharmacology    100 hours
  •                      Lectures on therapeutics           18 hours
  •                      Assignment on
  •                      applied pharmacology              10 hours
  •                       Clinical pharmacokinetics          7 hours
  •                      Integrated teaching                   10 hours
  •                       Tutorials/Discussion/Tests       47 hours
Total                                      192 hours

 Core curriculum

General principles of pharmacology, pharmacology of central nervous system, psychopharmacology, pharmacology of autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular blocking agents, centrally acting muscle relaxants, local anesthetics, general anesthetics, cardiovascular pharmacology, coagulants and anticoagulants, anti-hyperlipoproteinaemic agents, renal pharmacology, fluid and electrolytes, gastrointestinal pharmacology, autacoids, haematinics,  pharmacology of hormones, antimicrobial agents, anti-parasitic drugs, antiviral, antifungal, anthelminthic, drug acting on uterus, cytotoxic drugs, immunomodulators, drug interactions, clinical pharmacokinetics, essential drugs, and rational prescribing practice, adverse drug reaction and pharmacovigilance, drugs used in pregnancy, lactation and obesity, prescribing in liver and renal diseases and extreme age, overview of clinical trials and applied pharmacology.   There is integrated teaching with Microbiology, Pathology curriculum on relevant topics and enhanced it with panel discussion and poster contest by students.   Integrated Teaching Curriculum (horizontal as well as vertical integration) will be started during 2021-22.

Entrance Requirement

This course is offer to those who have the degree of MBBS and have passed the selection examination, which consist of written examination (MCQ) and personal interview.  


  • To provide opportunity for qualified candidates to pursue a course of study leading to the M.Med.Sc. degree in Pharmacology
  • To promote and strengthen teaching and research activity at the post-graduate level which will further elevate the standard of Pharmacology
  • To provide personnel equipped with specialized knowledge and skill of an advanced level for the health service, teaching and research in the field of Basic Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology


To achieve knowledge of
  • basic pharmacology principles and concepts
  • recent advances in Pharmacology and related disciplines
  • basic research methodologies
  • basic medical educational science in teaching of Pharmacology
To acquire skills in
  • performing basic experiments to demonstrate Pharmacological principles
  • performing basic laboratory techniques in Pharmacology
  • planning and carrying out research and writing a research paper
  • writing and defending a research protocol/ thesis
  • research paper presentation
  • preparing and delivering lectures/ tutorials/ practical sessions
  • utilization of information technology
To develop
  • a critical attitude towards claims in the literature
  • a scientific attitude towards solving problems
  • essential habits of self-education
  Duration of the Course: 2 years (Maximum 3 years)  

Core Curriculum


First year program
This year is devoted to seminars, written assignments, discussions, demonstrations and laboratory work related to Basic Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacology. General pharmacology: drugs and receptors, drugs and enzymes, structure-activity relationship, biochemical aspect of pharmacology, pharmacogenetics, Pharmacoeconomics, pharmacovigilance, discovery and development of drugs, evidence-based drug therapy, essential drugs concepts and rational prescribing practice, drugs in pregnancy, lactation, elderly, children and disease states, toxicology (selective toxicity and antidotes), molecular biology and medical statistics Systemic pharmacology: Drugs on Autonomic Nervous System, Drugs on Central Nervous System, Drugs on Cardiovascular System, Renal Pharmacology, Drugs treatment of Bronchial asthma and Cough, Autacoids, Drugs on Gastrointestinal system, Endocrine pharmacology, Drugs acting on uterus,  Basic and clinical pharmacology of antimicrobial agents, Chemotherapy of bacterial infections, Chemotherapy of fungal infections, Chemotherapy of viral infections, Chemotherapy of protozoal infections, Cancer chemotherapy, immunomodulators, and Gene therapy In-course work: intact and isolated animal tissue preparations, pharmacokinetic studies, biochemical techniques, e.g.  Spectrometry, extraction of active principal from medical plants, biostatistics Field visits: to relate departments such as Biochemistry dept., PSM dept., Department of Medical Research (DMR-Lower Myanmar), Development Centre for Pharmaceutical Technology, Yangon General Hospital-Nuclear Medicine Dept., Myanmar Pharmaceutical Factory, FDA (Nay-Pyi-Taw, Mandalay) to study about basic laboratory principles (e.g. sample collection, quality control), PCR, Separation techniques and chromatography, pharmaceutical toxicology and poison control, radioisotopes and research methodology
Second year program
This part of the course consists of clinical training and research in an approved research project. The candidate will be required 3 months hospital attachment at the start of second year. Case based learning (encourages the performance of a trainee in their management of a patient to provide an indication of competence in areas such as clinical reasoning, decision-making and application of knowledge in relation to patient care. It also serves as a method to document conversations about, and presentations of, cases by trainees. It should focus on a written record such as written case notes on patients.) A thesis based on the original research work by the candidate must be submitted for the degree and defend it to the satisfaction of the Board of Examiners. Candidates may continue research for thesis if necessary for a maximum period of three years.

Course requirement

This course is offered to those who have the degree of both M.B., B.S. and M.Med.Sc. (Pharmacology) and has passed the selection examination, which consists of three hour written paper and personal interview.


  • To produce personnel who are academically trained in Pharmacology to be able to serve the country as highly qualified researchers and teachers
  • To upgrade the postgraduate course to an advanced and higher level comparable to international standard


  • To master the knowledge of a specific academic field and prepare to teach that knowledge at the university level
  • To make an original contribution, through research, to the knowledge within a specific field
  • To establish oneself as an expert and leader within the academic community of the field

Duration of the course: 3 years (maximum 4 years)

  The candidate should be trained according to structured programme.  

Structured Programme

Time frame       Structured Programme
First year
  1. Exposure to common module
2. Literature review for selection of research topic
3. Conduct journal reading and presentation once a month in the Department
4. Discuss topic selection with resource persons
5. Write Protocol and submit at the end of nine months (pilot study of methods to be used if necessary)
6. Defend protocol and amend as necessary, guided by supervisor. Protocol to be ready at the end of a year.
7. Preparation for research work  
Second Year 1.      Start research work
2.      Keep log book of activities
3.      Report regularly on progress of research work (monthly or as required)
4.      Delivering and presentation of scientific talks (at least two seminars and one conference)
5.      Make oral presentations of research findings to staff of Department every three or six months
6.      Participate in Department teaching in topics related to the research
7.      Publish certain aspects of research work in local/ international journals (at least one article)
8.      Short term study tour in foreign countries (whenever possible)  
Third Year 1.      Continue research work
2.      Analyze data and write a thesis
3.      Participate in department teaching
4.      Make presentation of scientific talks (at least two seminars and one conference)
5.      Submit and defend thesis (34-36 months of the course) 6.      The thesis must be the original unpublished work (in the Republic of the Union of Myanmar) of the candidate. 7.      The candidate must submit a thesis approved by the Board of Studies and defend it to the satisfaction of the Board of Examiners.
Pharmacologists are need to be trained to pursue their career as Clinical Pharmacologist to fulfill the health care needs especially for evaluation of quality, safety and efficacy of drugs, promotion of Rational Use of Medicines (RUM) according to therapeutic guidelines based on scientific evidence and prevention of drug related problems for patient safety.  

Course requirement

This course is offered to those who have the degree of M.B., B.S. and M.Med.Sc. (Pharmacology) and has passed the selection examination, which consists of three hour written paper and personal interview.  


To develop the personnel who has the appropriate level of knowledge, skills, attitudes and competence to work independently and effectively as a consultant in clinical pharmacology.  


  • To demonstrate competence in the applied pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, pharmacoeconomics, pharmacoepidemiology, drug development, clinical trial design, evaluation of research proposal, trial protocols, critical appraisal, therapeutic drug monitoring, analytic methodology, applied statistics, drug regulation, drug utilization, education and teaching
  • To give advice on the management and treatment of patients suffering from poisoning with drug and chemicals (clinical toxicology)
  • To conduct, implement, and monitor clinical trials to meet regulatory requirements
  • To effectively evaluate drug registration dossiers submitted for registration, handle ADR reports and drug information queries, form ideas about the appropriate drug policy, develop Essential Medicine List for the country

Duration of the course: one year


Training Programme


Case based learning, hospital attachment 6 months (4 months in Medicine ward, 1 month in Child ward, 2 weeks in OG and Surgery units) to achieve hand-on training, clinical and therapeutic skills. The course is also devoted to seminars, written assignments, discussions, clinical training, and laboratory works related to Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.   There is total 11 modules (8 compulsory and 3 optional).
  • Module 1: Compulsory, Clinical Experience (Clinical Wards) (16 weeks, 60 credits)
  • Module 2: Compulsory, Generic Skills (Clinical Wards) (8 weeks, 30 credits)
  • Module 3: Compulsory, Academic Clinical Pharmacology (4 weeks, 20 credits)
  • Module 4: Optional, Regulatory Pharmacology (Drug Regulatory Authority) (1 week, 10 credits)
  • Module 5: Optional, Industrial Pharmacology (1 week, 10 credits)
  • Module 6: Compulsory, Clinical trials according to GCP guidelines (3 weeks, 20 credits)
  • Module 7: Compulsory, Drug Information and Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) Monitoring (2 weeks, 15 credits)
  • Module 8: Compulsory, Laboratory Module (3 weeks, 15 credits)
  • Module 9: Compulsory, Clinical Toxicology (3 weeks, 15 credits)
  • Module 10: Compulsory, Essential Medicines, rational use of drug and drug utilization (1 week, 10 credits)
  • Module 11: Optional, Pharmacoepidemiology / Pharmacoeconomics/ Pharmacogenetics (2 weeks, 20 credits)